Can I Contribute to an IRA if I Have a 401(k) That I Don't Use?
Original post by Ciaran John of Demand Media
Many people make contributions to both individual retirement accounts (IRA), and employer sponsored pension plans such as a 401(k) plan. If you have no access to an employer sponsored pension plan, then you can contribute to an IRA regardless of your income level. However, income limits for deducting the IRA do apply to employees who have access to retirement plans through work. Furthermore, if you are married, your ability to deduct your IRA are also limited if your spouse has access to a 401(k) through work. Income limits for deduction apply to IRAs, even if you and your spouse choose not to contribute work-sponsored retirement plans.
IRAs and 401(k) plans are both funded with tax-deductible contributions, and the money that you invest in these retirement plans grows tax deferred. To prevent you from shielding all of your money from taxes in the current year, the IRS imposes annual contribution limits on both of these account types. As of 2011, you can make an annual investment of $5,000 in an IRA. if you are age 50 or older, you can contribute up to $6,000, per year. You can also contribute up to $16,500, into your 401(k) until your reach the age of 50, after which you can contribute up to $22,000. However, your total annual contributions to your IRA and 401(k) cannot exceed your earned income for the year.
Single Tax Filer
If you file your taxes as a single person or a head of household, and you have access to a 401(k) at work, you can only deduct the maximum contribution to your IRA if your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) does not exceed $56,000. Your MAGI consists of your taxable income, known as your adjusted gross income (AGI), plus money that you deducted from your AGI such as the money you contributed to your IRA. You can deduct a reduced amount of your IRA if you have a MAGI of more than $56,000, but less than $66,000. You cannot get a tax deduction for the current tax year as a single filer, or head of household if you have a MAGI of $66,000 or more.
If you are married and file your taxes jointly and have access to a 401(k) plan, then you are not allowed to deduct your IRA unless your MAGI is less than $110,000. You can make a partial deduction if your MAGI exceeds $90,000 but amounts to less than $110,000. If you have a MAGI of $90,000 or less, then you can make the full deduction. If you are married filing separately and have access to a 401(k), then you cannot make a full contribution but you can make a reduced deduction if you have a MAGI below $10,000.
If you have no access to a 401(k), but your spouse has 401(k) access, then you have to contend with income limits for deduction even if your spouse does not contribute to a 401(k) plan. If you file separately, you cannot make a full IRA deduction, but you can make a partial deduction as long as your MAGI falls below $10,000. If you file jointly, you can deduct fully with a MAGI of $169,000, or less and you can make a partial deduction if your MAGI exceeds that sum, but is less than $179,000. If you earn $179,000 or more, you cannot deduct an IRA.
- IRS.gov; 2011 IRA Contribution and Deduction Limits
- IRS.gov; 2011 IRA Deduction Limits - Effect of Modified AGI on Deduction if You Are Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work; November 2010
- IRS.gov; Retirement Plans FAQs regarding IRAs; July 2011
- IRS.gov; 401(k) Resource Guide - Plan Participants - Limitation on Elective Deferrals; May 2011
- IRS.gov; 2011 Deduction Limit - Effect of Modified AGI on Deduction if You Are NOT Covered by a Retirement Plan at Work; November 2010
About the Author
Ciaran John began writing in 1994 with contributions to "The Hourly Press" and "The Sawbridgeworth Observer." He holds a Florida Life, Health and Variable Annuity license as well as series 6 and 63 securities licenses. He has a Bachelor of Arts in theology from Kings College in London.